Most figures of speech cast up a picture in your mind. These pictures created or suggested by the poet are called 'images'. To participate fully in the world of poem, we must understand how the poet uses image to convey more than what is actually said or literally meant.
We speak of the pictures evoked in a poem as 'imagery'. Imagery refers to the "pictures" which we perceive with our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and through which we experience the "duplicate world" created by poetic language. Imagery evokes the meaning and truth of human experiences not in abstract terms, as in philosophy, but in more perceptible and tangible forms. This is a device by which the poet makes his meaning strong, clear and sure. The poet uses sound words and words of color and touch in addition to figures of speech. As well, concrete details that appeal to the reader's senses are used to build up images.
Although most of the image-making words in any language appeal to sight
(visual images), there are also images of touch (tactile), sound (auditory),
taste (gustatory), and smell (olfactory). The last two terms in parentheses
are mainly used by lovers of jargon. An image may also appeal to
the reader's sense of motion: a verb like Pope's spring does so.
TYPES OF IMAGES (according to the source of visual images)
1. SIMPLE DESCRIPTION - a large number of images which arise in a poem come from simple description of visible objects or actions.
3. STORY - like description, narration causes the reader or hearer to form images. When the reader realizes that he is being told a tale he visualizes from habit; he does not wish to miss the point of the story.
METONYMY - when a poet uses metonymy, he names one thing when he really
5. SYNECDOCHE - when a poet uses synecdoche, he names a part of a thing when he means whole thing (or vice versa) or the genius for the species.
6. ONOMATOPOEIA - although imagery usually refers to visual images, there are also aural images. The use of words which sound like their meaning is called onomatopoeia. e.g. buzz, hiss, clang , splash, murmur, chatter, etc.
As Sir Philip Sidney said: "Imaging is itself the very height and life
of poetry." It must be so, form the very nature of poetic vision, which
always embodies itself in the form of symbols. The personality of the poet,
which is the well-spring of his poetry will be a world created from all
that he has known and felt and seen and heard and thought. His image-making
poetic faculty and his imagination will blend together his memories and
his immediate perceptions into a thousand of varieties of shapes and associations
of living loveliness and power. However apparently direct and unadorned
the poet makes his verses, he will employ images. However simple his statement
he cannot make it abstract.
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