is derived from two morphemes "bun" (heap) and "tuk" (top), which taken
together, means "mountains." The term "Bontoc" now refers to the people
of the Mountain Province used to consist of five subprovinces created during
the Spanich period: Benguet, Ifugao, Bontoc, Apayao and Kalinga. In 1966,
four new provinces were created out of the original Mountain Province:
Benguet, Ifugao, Mounatin Province (formerly the subprovince of Bontoc),
and Kalinga-Apayao. Hence, people may still erroneously refer to the four
provinces as the Mountain Province
.The Mountain province
sits on the Cordillera mountain range, which runs from north to south.
It is bounded on the west by Ilocos Sur province, on the east by Isabela
and Ifugao provinces, on the north by Kalinga-Apayao Province, and on the
south by Ifugao and Beguet Provinces. Part of its western territory has
been carved out to the jurisdiction of Ilocos Sur, and is drained by the
Chico River. Its capital is Bontoc town, which was also the capital of
the former Mountain Province. It has a total of 10 municipalities and 137
barrios. The villages at the southern end of the Mountain Province are
northern Kankanay. Although there is a common language, also called Bontoc,
each village may have its own dialect and phonetic peculiarities (NCCP-PACT).
Pouplation estimate in 1988 was 148,000. Physical types are characteristically
Philippine, with ancient Ainu and short Mongol types.
Beliefs and Practices
Although the Bontoc believe
in the anito or spirits of their ancestors and in spirits dwelling in nature,
they are essentially monotheistic. Their god is Lumawig, their culture
hero and son of the god Kabunian, although the two are also perceived as
one and the same. Religious practices, rituals and cañoas attend
their cycles of life, death, and agricultural activities. There are many
kinds of cañoa. The chao-es is the feast for the manerwap, which
is the ritual imploring Lumawig for rain. A cho-es is also held when a
person's name needs to be changed because of an incurable ailment that
is believed to be caused by an ancestral spirit. The fosog is the feast
for fertility rites. There are sacred days called tengao/teer, which are
some 46 days scattered in a year when work in the fields is taboo. The
tengao are generally associated with crops, climate, weather and sickness.
During this period, kapya (prayers) are addressed to the spirits for favors
and blessings. The manayeng
is a group prayer asking Lumawig for rain.
Arts and Crafts
Traditional clothing leave
both males and females bare above the waist. However, even in early times
women in the Lepanto area had short blouses, once made of bark with a warp
sewed or quilted. It had no fastening in front and had short sleeves. The
men sometimes wear the American coat above their G-string, and the women
wear simple white blouses. Today the younger Bontoc wear the trousers,
shirts, dresses and shoes of lowland Filipinos for everyday wear especially
when staying in or traveling to the lowlands.
The Bontoc have a tradition
of cloth weaving. The background colors are dark, the favorite being blue.
Geometric designs are diamonds, triangles, hexagons and zigzags. Representational
designs are the dancing man or woman, stars, leaves, and rice paddies.
These are woven in yellow, green, white and red threads. These designs
are used in garments and blankets.
The men's traditional
attire is the G-string called wanes. Wealthy males, however, have the lagteb,
which is a G-string of pure white thread woven and designed more elaborately
than the ordinary ones. A 17.5-cm. disk made of mother-of-pearl shell called
fikum may decorate the G-string. Old men may wear the pitay or ewes ay
pinagpakan, a thick blanket, although the younger ones claim it is women's
wear. On the head is the suklang/suklung, a small cap of basketwork, which
comes in various shapes: fezlike, hemispherical, or low and flat. The fal-laka
is the bachelor's cap colorfully adorned with beads, boars' teeth and feathers.
This cap is also used to hold the things that men carry about, such as
pipes and matches.
The women's skirt is called
the lufid, short and narrow, extending from the navel to the knees, and
with a side opening. The rich woman's skirt is the khinawaan, which has
white strips in the middle. The poor has the kinayan, a red and white skirt
of plain weave. The work day skirt, made of two strips colored white and
red is called the kinarchago. The skirt woven in many colors is the inorma.
The wakis, a belt 10 cm. wide, is wound twice around the waist. Sometimes
it has a white background to set off the yellow, green, black and red designs.
The blanket is worn over the shoulders only in dancing.
Although the women wear
no necklaces, their hair is tied elaborately together with the apong (strings
of black seeds, brass-wire rings, white stone beads either pear-shaped
or many sided, reddish agate beads,
and dog's teeth). The apong is a heirloom
and usually not for sale. An heirloom belt, the akosan/akkos, made of cloth
covered with shells and brass wire, conceals a narrow wallet where the
apong is kept.
Today some males wear
the abkil (armlets of boar-tusk). This used to be adorned with a tuft of
human hair from a captured head. At the ato's head-taking ceremony, the
male dancers wear the fuyaya, a necklace of boar's teeth.
Some unmarried men and
women still wear ear stretchers or ear plugs to create very long slits
on the earlobes. The stretcher is made of two pieces of bamboo held apart
by shorter pieces between them. It may be decorated with straight incised
lines. The earplugs are of wood, shaped like a bottle cork stopper and
decorated with straight incised lines, red seeds ore pieces of glass. The
al-ling/senseng are gold-hand-crafted earrings with varied designs. The
lingling-o is worn by the Cordillera groups either as an earring or necklace
pendant. It is circular with a cut on the bottom, so that it is "an almost
closed C" (Casal et al 1981:242). A favorite variation among the Bontoc
is that shaped like a horned bull, with the cut representing the muzzle.
The lingling-o are usually worn by the Bontoc women as earrings, to which
beads and shells are sometimes attached. These pieces of jewelry, heirloom
pieces, comprise the wealth of a family, along with the gangsa Chinese
jars, and plates.
The tattoo used to be a
prestige symbol, worn only by theheadhunter. However,it is now purely ornamental.
Thereare three types of tattoos: the chaklag, the breast tattoo ofthe headhunter;
the pongo, the arm tattoo of both sexes orthe woman's tattoo; and the fatek
which is used as thegeneric term and refers to all other tattoos. The tattoo
usedto be a prestige symbol, worn only by the headhunter.However,it is
now purely ornamental. There are threetypes of tattoos: the chaklag, the
breast tattoo of theheadhunter; the pongo, the arm tattoo of both sexes
or thewoman's tattoo; and the fatek which is used as the generic term and
refers to all other tattoos. The chaklag consists of geometric lines curving
from each nipple to each shoulder and ending on each upper arm. Horizontal
lines are made on the biceps to supplement the breast tattoo. The woman's
tattoo is on the back of the hands and encircles the arms beginning from
the wrists to above the elbows. On the upper arm, the figure of a man with
extended arms and legs may be etched. The man's tattoo has a simpler pattern
and uses longer lines; the woman's tattoo uses cross-hatched lines and
patchwork designs. Disfigurement such as swellings, are used deliberately
as part of the tattoo designs.
At an early age, young
men are sent to live in the ato or male dormitory, and the women in the
ulog or the female dormitory. Photos of tattooed man and woman were taken
ca 1910. (Natinal Geographic Magazine 1912, Lopez Museum Collection)
Baskets, which are either
of rattan or bamboo or a combination of both, are important implements
for trade, transport and storage, in the field and at home. A transitional
shape, i.e., the gradual tapering of the baskets from a four-sided base
to a rounded top, is achieved through a certain weaving patterns. A typical
example is the akob, a storage basket consisting of two bowl-shaped baskets
of equal size. One serves as a cover when it is fitted over the other.
When either half is laid with the circular opening on top, it rests on
a square base of split bamboo or wood, which is attached to the body with
The kolug, a shellfish
basket, is attached to the woman's waist. It is bottle-shaped with a square
base and body but a rounded neck and opening. A break in the weave at the
base of the neck makes this transition possible, provides ventilation for
the shellfish, and lends an aesthetic feature to the basket. The bottom
has open weave holes through which water is drained.
An egg-shaped basket for
beans is the again. Large crisscrossing rattan splints just beneath the
top rim provide the decoration and affect the tapering from the wide middle
to the smaller top. The body is woven in wickerwork design. A touch of
color is provided by two strips of yellow orchid stems woven horizontally
across the upper half of the basket. It stands 8.25 cm. high, has a 5-cm.
square base, a 10.7-cm. circular top, and is 17.7-cm. at the middle.
The man's lunch basket
is the topil, a covered basket which can carry three quarts of food. It
consists of two rectangular pieces, one serving as the cover which is fitted
over the body. The pieces are loosely attached to each other with a fibrous
string or rattan twine. The cover has rounded corners and the sides have
a herringbone design. It measures 10 cm. wide, 14 cm. long and 12.7 cm.
The man's most important
basket is the pasiking/khimata, either square or trapezoidal, made of bamboo
and attached to a light wooden crossbar. It is worn like a knapsack. The
tal-lak is a square open rattan basket, relatively shallow, with the top
wider than the bottom. The lavfa is another open basket, either square
or round, slimmer and deeper that the tal-lak. The woman has the tayaan,
a large basket for transporting goods. A smaller basket worn by the woman
on the rump is the agkawin, in which she carries her lunch when she works
in the field. Worn over the woman's head when it rains is the tugwi, about
1.2 m. long, having two layers between which is a large palm leaf. The
ma's rain hat is the segfi, coneshaped and water-proofedwith beeswax. A
household basket is the faloko, used to contain vegetables, camote and
rice. Other household baskets are the iwus, large and bottle-shaped; the
kolug, also bottle shaped and a container for rice; the akug, a rice sieve;
and khyag/kiug, a food tray used only for ceremonial purposes. The gangsa
and water jars are kept in baskets shaped for a snug fit.
From the wall near the
hearth hang three small baskets called pagitaken. Whenever a pinikpikan
ritual is held in the house, a piece of the sacrificed chicken and a handful
of rice is placed in each basket as an offering for the anito. These baskets
are not moved from the house, even when the family transfers residence.
An example of Bontoc figurative
wood carving are the heads sculpted on the tops of tree fern trunks or
poles to represent heads of slain enemies. Stones resembling human skulls
are also placed atop poles. Bontoc war trails had ceremonial structures
called komis, in which omens were observed before a headhunting trip. A
komis consisted of vertical posts whose tops are also carved to represent
heads. Stones represented eyes and teeth. Baskets and racks used for the
sacrificial animals hung from posts lying across the vertical poles.
Another example of Bontoc
wood carving is the house deity tinagtagoa, a seated figure with hands
crossed on its breast. The tinagtagoa possesses neither the aesthetic finish
nor the religious significance of the Ifugao bulul, a pair of figures of
a man and a woman in cordillera societies in various social and religious
Other examples of wood
carving include the ceremonial containers used together with the bulul
during rituals. These containers usually have sculpted animal heads protruding
from their bodies, which are in turn decorated with waves following the
contour of the piece, Household items like food bowls with a reptile's
head as a handle, scabbards with a carved human figure, meat slicers in
the form of a human figure with a piece of sharpened iron protruding from
the chest, and various spoons and ladles with animal figures at the handle's
tip, are also part of the Bontoc wood-carving art (Monpaot 1991:11-39).
A fine piece of woven sculpture
is a human figure whose arms are wrapped around a bowl basket. Made by
coiling split rattan peel, the figure has well-defined leaves and facial
features. A tuft of human hair is stuck into the crown of the figure to
serve as a wig.
Tools and implements are
incised with the same geometric designs found on the woven cloths.
Weapons. harking back
to the times of tribal wars and headhunting forays, are part of the family
heirloom. The shield is made of a single sheet of wood but is cut so that
three points project above, and two points, below. Rattan strips are laced
across the shield, serving as both ornament and reinforcement. For ornamentation,
some shields are etched with geometric lines or crude drawings of snakes,
frogs, or humans. Otherwise, the shield is simply soot-black. The spear
is a wooden weapon with either a bamboo or metal blade. Other weapons are
the battle ax and knives.
Smoking pipes are made
of wood, clay, or metal. Pipe makers may place a design on the bowl of
the pipe by first making a beeswax model. One example of a design is that
of a sitting figure of a man; his knees are folded up, his elbows resting
on his knees, and his chin resting on his hands. His facial features are
The Bontoc use language
to address two classes of beings: their living fellow human beings and
the invincible beings consisting of deities and anito.
Bontoc social literature
is that body of oral composition, sun or recited, whose purpose is to communicate
ideas or attitudes to others at certain social occasions. Of great significance
is the body of Bontoc literature which expresses the Bontoc world view
and reflects their collective history. This consists of their riddles,
proverbs, aphorism, songs, tales, legends, and myths.
Some examples of riddles
are the following:
Wada san duay sing-anag-i
There are two brothers,
they turn their backs
on one another. (Ears)
Mo madsem maannaannawa
mo pay mapat-a ngumadan
si tubong. (Abek)
A bamboo tube by day,
by night a sea. (Mat)
Mo bumala mengagabey,
mo masiken iwwakna san
When a child, she wore
when grown up she was
stripped naked to the
waist. (Bamboo blossom,
or bamboo shoot)
Ritual literature is that
body of literature addressed or chapted to the deities or anito during
ceremonies. Examples of ritual literature are the ayyeng, annako, kapya,
manayeng/manaing, orakyo, and achog.
One folktale tells a stepson
who, unable to bear a cruel stepmother, mutilates himself and is transformed
into a kuling (a large bird) to teach her a lesson. She repents and becomes
a loving mother to her remaining stepson while the kuling keeps a watchful
eye over them. Carrying a similar theme is another tale of a mother who,
becoming so absorbed in the pursuit of livelihood, neglects to feed and
care for her child. The angry child becomes a tilin (a grain-eating bird)
and yearly returns at harvest time to eat the harvest to punish the selfish
Another story revolves
around a nameless man, practically an outcast, who finds the opportunity
to kill a monster snake that has been plaguing the village. Having done
a great deed for the people, he obtains a name. His grateful townsfolk
call him Kawis, meaning "Good".
A legend tells of a rich
man's son who falls in love with a poor girl. His father tries to put an
end to the affair. Catching them by the stream of the Kadchog one night,
he beats them up. They are transformed into two great white stones, which
one can still see there today. Since that tragic event, the Bontocs say,
the kadangyan no longer force their children against their wishes.
A myth claims that the
three stars in the Belt of the Orion are the three daughters of a Bontoc
rich man and the Star Maiden. The maiden had descended to the earth with
her sisters one night to cut sugarcane and to bathe in the river. The owner
in the sugarcane field, coming upon them, hid the clothes of one of them.
When the maidens left for the sky, one could not fly away because her white
robes were missing. The man took her as his wife and they had three daughters.
But the woman spent her nights weaving white robes for herself and her
three daughters. One night, while the man slept, the woman and her daughters
donned their white robes and flew back to the sky. Today, they say, the
three stars and one big, bright star in Orion are the Star Maiden and her
The most important of
the mythology are the oggood, the narratives concerning Lumawig, the Bontoc
god and culture hero. Lumawig came from Mt. Kalawitan to the land of the
Bontoc searching for adventure. He choose to marry the beautiful and industrious
lady Fukan after rejecting one lady whose hair was too short, another who
lived in a village that was too small, and a third who "tittered like a
bird". To Lumawig are attributed the beginnings of many Bontoc sacred traditions
which survive to the present. He rewarded good and punished evil. He wanted
peace and prosperity. He established the institution of the ato. He established
the rituals. He performed wonders to teach ethical norms. He changed his
own selfish father-in-law into a rock with water gushing forth from its
anus, because the older man refused to stand in line for a drink of water
the Lumawig had caused to spring from a rock. He established the chom-no
ritual to forge peace among neighboring communities. In Bontoc town is
a tiny garden patch that is tended by a special priest and irrigated by
a constant spring; this is where Lumawig first taught agriculture to the
On Mt Kal-lat is a huge
stone said to have been set down there by Lumawig. When bad weather threatened
the people, the men gathered around this stone and performed the kapya.
Women are tabooed, but one curious woman came one day to see the stone.
Lightning struck the rock and broke it into two. Today it still lies in
that condition. It was Luawig who decreed the tengao, which he began when
he gave his wife to the widower leader of the Tinglayan in order to establish
some peace between those people and the Bontoc. This new marriage brought
two lovely daughters who, on a trip to see their Bontoc grandmother, lost
their way because of bad weather and were killed by the Kanew. the bodies
of the girls were buried on Mt Papatay, which is now held sacred. It is
believed that the Great Spirit resides in the mountain; hence, a shamn
offers prayers and sacrifices there. It is forbidden to cut the trees on
this mountain or to pick their leaves.
The myths are also an
integral part of the ritual. In the traditional wedding of the ceremony,
the narrative of Lumawig's wedding is recited. Part of the planting rites
for an abundant harvest is the recitation of the myth about how the gods
multiplied and increased the size of the crops.
Although he tales recounting
the adventures of Lumawig are not in epic form, they bear similar narrative
and thematic characteristics and may be fragments of long narrative chant,
not unlike the epics of the Ifugao and Kankanay. These myths are the literary
basis of tribal moves, social and political institutions, social history
and religious practices.
An important ensemble of
the Bontoc is the gangsa pattung, consisting of five or more flat gongs
struck with padded sticks. Depending upon the type of dance and the village
where the performers came from, there are variations in the style of playing
the flat gongs. In the central town of Bontoc, gangsa pattung has three
categories of flat gongs with specific musical functions: mangokngok, maerwas
The mangokngok is the
largest and lowest-pitched gong playing an alteration of ringing and dampened
sounds, and providing the regular steady beat of the music. The merwas
play plays patterns combining the ringing and dampened sounds. The matayoktok
is characterized by the prominent use of dampened sounds.
Bontoc flat gong ensembles
are used on festive occasions like victory celebrations for a successful
tumo (headhunting trip), sa-eb (initiation rites for young men), chon,
peace pact gatherings, and thanksgiving rites. In Sadanga, the playing
of flat gongs in religious rituals is called feyar, and this is performed
with the paliwat (recitation of challenges) and iyag (group chanting).
The musical instruments
that often stimulate flat gong music are the bamboo tube zither called
kullitong and the jew's harps called abil-law and awideng. The kullitong
has five strings of metal. These strings are raised by small stones that
serve as movable bridges at both ends of each string. Jew's harps are the
abil-law, made of bamboo, and the awideng, made of metal with a pulling
string attached to its pointed tip. These harps are played by young men
for entertainment and courtship at the ulog. Also associated with courtship
is the nose flute karraring/kal-leleng/kalaleng, which has three fingerholes
and a thumbhole. Musical instruments, particularly for the young, are the
sapsap-ok or pipes in a row, teptepew or short whistle flute made of bamboo
or used gun bullet casings, arsip and patpatfag or reed aerophones made
from rice stalks. When a person has died violently, the sinongyup, a notched
mouth flute, and the reed aerophones are sounded together with the wedwed
(bullroarer) in order to disturb the killer's soul.
Bontoc music accompanies
the daily affairs of the people. Parents who work in the fields hand over
their children to the old women in the kol-lob, where lullabies, folk songs,
and the og-good (epic) are sung to the children.
is sung during ablution rites of headhunting victory celebrations. Young
men courting ladies at the ulog sing the ayegka, love songs, which have
traditional tunes but improvised lyrics. Many such songs are never sung
again. Rice-pounding songs chay-assa and kwel-la/kudya are also sung to
communicate mentally with a loved one who is far away. The ayoweng/mangayuweng,
the laborer's song, is sung when doing farm work, pounding rice, or walking
on the trail toward the field.
Song farms used at social
gatherings, such as peace pacts, weddings and thanksgiving rites, include
the ayyeng, chag-ay, charngek, salidum-ay, surwe-ey, and wigwigan. The
pagpaguy is a salidum-ay sung in groups during the wake of a deceased grandparent.
It is a happy tune because it is believed that grandparents have lived
their lives fully. Singing accompanies the dance in the sukaidan ritual,
which is performed exclusively by men of the upper class in order to implore
the god Kabunyan and other nature spirits for rain. The bagbagto/ fagfagto
refers to both the song and the stone-throwing game that the men of Bontoc
and Samoki town engage in to begin the camote-planting season.
Different types of salidum-ay
are heard at the chono. The small boys sing the aygaen, an improvised song
consisting of one line repeatedly sung to a simple tune. All through the
night, in front of all the houses of sponsoring families, men stand in
a semi-circle with their arms around one another's shoulders and sing maiwag
to the staccato rhythm of the gangsa. The next evening, the old men sing
the al-layo, which is an improvised song about the history of sponsoring
families. The ayyeng, also sung by the elders, is a cañoa song imploring
Lumawig to bless the singers and the cañoa host with strength.
Funeral songs are drama,
for these are chanted conversations with the deceased. The annako is a
mourning song by old women keeping vigil beside the dead, which seats on
the death throne. If the dead is a victim of violence at the hands of the
enemy, the annako challenges the spirit of the dead to take revenge and
restore his honor. An excerpt follows:
Into'y nabay gatanam
Inka'y tay mid alam
Palalo ka'y kasegseg-ang
No inka et maeesang
Inka et ta alam nan
Ta wad-ay et en kaduam
Ta adi ka et maeesang
Inka et ta alam nan.
Look where you have gone
Because you have not taken
You are very pitiful [you
For look, you are alone,
So, you get [him] now
So you will have some
So you will not be alone
So, go get [him] now.
The achog tells about
the life of a dead person and is sung by two or three groups of people
during the night vigil for the dead. The first three stanzas of a 19-stanza
funeral dirge follows:
Id cano sangasangadom,
wada's Inan Talangey
Ay bayaw ay nasakit, ay
San bebsat Inan Talangey,
maid egay da iyey
Bayaw issan masakit, ay
si Inan Talangey
Sa't ikokodana dapay anocan
Wada pay omanono ay daet
San Nakwas ay nadiko,
ay ba'w si Inan Talangey
Dadaet isangadil, issan
sag-en san tetey
Da't san ab-abiik na napika
et ay omey
Bayawan ay manateng ab-abiik
Adyaet mailokoy si'n anito'y
Nan danen daet mattao
bayaw ya nabaginey.
Da't cano menlingos, ay
san deey nal-ayan
Ay dan't cano ilan, ay
nan enda dinaan
Ay daet maid wan-ey, bayaw
Dapay adoadoda san ena
Da't si Inan Talangey,
wada ay masidingan
Ulay ikakamo na dapay
A long time ago, it is
there was Inan Talangey
Who had been sick for
a long time
The brothers and sisters
of Inan Talangey,
they did not bring
To the sick who was Inan
But she was lying in bed
and yet was very fussy
And at length she finally
After she was dead she
They tied her to the death
and near the ladder
Then her soul started
To join the souls of the
She went with a long line
Their path was grassy
and among the
Then back she who was
Then she saw the path
There were no wan-ey and
of trodden plants
And yet there were many,
whom she was going
Then she Inan Talangey,
giving out strength
Faster she went and yet
could be left behind.
Orakyo is the song of
children in connection with the chom-no ritual, in which carabaos are sacrificed,
an occasion when the ato elders try to strengthen the pacts with the neighboring
tribes, and guests come bearing gifts for the chom-no host. The singing
is done by the children while standing on a platform called patongan and
the song narrates how the sacrificial carabaos are caught and killed by
being made to fall down the cliff. The orakyo may also be any improvised
song. For example:
Kinchag chas fakintot
Chinachapan chas kipan
Kinchag chas ad falakyo
Sapalit si kawitan
They have felled fakintot
They have hanged their
See the crown of the rooster
The distinctive features
of Bontoc music are the predominant use of vocal ornamentation, the rendering
of various types of songs in leader-chorus style, and the playing of the
gangsa with padded stick. Vocal coloring in music is rendered through heavy
tremolos, hissing and loud rhythmic breathing. In addition, the choruses
sing in harmony often in parallel thirds. Bontoc musical genres are closely
correlated with sociopolitical activities, such as the pedin/pechin (peace
pact), kayaw (headhunting rites).
Among the Bontoc dances,
the most spectacular are the war dances. The balangbang, a term derived
from the sound of the gangsa, is a victorious dance performed by old men
and women when warriors return with an enemy's head. The faluknit, another
victory dance, is initiated by a returning warrior recounting his headhunting
feats and inviting his beloved to share in his triumph in the fal-lukay.
He is followed by the other warriors and the rest of the community. In
the past, the captured heads were placed in the center of the dancing circle
as the women took turns kicking the heads to show their scorn for the enemy
as men beat the gongs. These dances are presently performed only for ceremonial
or entertainment purposes.
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Trota Jose Jr, Eric S. Casiño, George R. Ellis, and Wilhelm G. Solheim
II. The People and Art of the Philippines. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural
Cawed, Carmencita. The
Culture of the Bontoc Igorots. Manila: MCS Enterprises, 1972.
Filog, Pablo. "The Tengao
Custom of Bontoc: Its Meaning and Functions." St. Louis University Research
Journal, Vol. VIII, No. 1, (1977).
Jenks, Albert E. The Bontoc
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Publications, Vol. I. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970. Reprint
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Llamzon, Teodoro A. Handbook
of Philippine Language Groups. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University
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Sculptures. An ethnographic exhibit curated by David Baradas. Cultural
Center of the Philippines, Bulwagang Fernando Amorsolo, 4 Feb. to
4 Mar 1991.
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NCCP-PACT. Sandugo. Manila:
national Council of Churches in the Philippines, 1988.
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